Pakistan has immense reserves of various metals and industrial minerals.
Important minerals found in Pakistan are gypsum, limestone, chromite, iron ore, rock salt, copper, gold, silver, graphite, sulfur, fire clay, rare-earth metals and silica etc. The Geological Survey of Pakistan estimates that mineral reserves they have mapped are, in dollar terms, between $12 and $15 trillion. Given the average of 30 percent recovery with current technology it still translates into $4 to $5 trillion recovery ratio of known reserves.
Sindh province has identifiable reserves of more than 175 billion tons of lignite coal, while there are significant reserves of marble, graphite, limestone, chromite and silica in the southern parts of province. Sindh province is also the largest producer of natural gas and small quantities of oil. The province actively encourages investment in the oil and gas and in the mineral sector.
Balochistan province is Pakistan’s largest province by area and is also recognized as the richest in variety of minerals that includes Iron ore, Coal, Copper, Gold, silver, marble, granite and several other industrial minerals. In extractive sector, Balochistan is blessed with several gas fields that are producing over a billion cubic feet of gas. Geological Survey of Pakistan mineral maps indicate unexploited reserves of several minerals that can be extracted in the province which also offer investment opportunities for domestic and foreign investors. The province has significant quantities of copper and gold identified in early 2000 and a consortium of firms from Canada and Chili has offered to develop a large mine reserve. The discovery has ranked Tethyan Copper Company Pakistan limited discovery among the world’s top seven copper reserves.
Punjab Province has the largest deposit of pure rock salt found anywhere in the world. Geological surveys indicate substantial iron ore reserves at Chunian and at Kalabagh. These are in addition to other industrial minerals such as marble, granite, graphite, limestone. Punjab Government is currently revising the Mineral Rules
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit Baltistan provinces (Northern Pakistan) account for at least 78% of the marble production in Pakistan. Pakistan is home to some of the finest and purest grades of marble, granite and slate stone found in the world. Much of the grade A Marble exported and is marketed in European countries actually has its origins in Pakistan. With better cutting, polishing and processing machinery, the stone sector has become a major mineral export sector in Pakistan. The Government has offered steps to invest in this crucial sector. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also has commercially exploitable reserves of precious and semi -precious stones.